Chlorine dioxide is used as an oxidizing microbiocide in industrial cooling water treatment, the dairy industry, the meat industry, and many other food and beverage industry applications. It is used as a bleaching agent in the pulp and paper industry, and as a disinfectant in municipal water treatment. Industrial waste treatment facilities use chlorine dioxide because of its selectivity for certain compounds, including phenols, sulfides, cyanides, thiosulfates, and mercaptans. The oil and gas industry uses chlorine dioxide for downhole applications and as a stimulation enhancement additive. The Maximum Residual Disinfectant Level for chlorine dioxide is 0.8 mg/L in drinking water.